Health Blog


Rhythm of life: an analysis of cardio vascular disease

Published on 2017-03-21 07:03:57

 

Healthy heart is the cornerstone to healthy body, healthy mind, and hearty feelings

An optimist feeling, a jovial mood, a blissful soul and a contented mind: all add fodder to healthy heart and a healthy heart fosters human wellbeing. Healthy heart leads to healthy mind and body and it is the cornerstone to healthy body, healthy mind, and hearty feelings. Hence, making our heart healthy we can inspire a healthy and well functioned cardio vascular system.

A systematic and consistent approach to keep our heart healthy is an obligatory responsibility. A controlled, organised, and healthy lifestyle can help us fight for the cardio vascular disease (CVD).

Heart, Treating heart diseases

According to a study, in India, 45 million people suffer from coronary artery disease – heart attack. Based on the estimation, heart attack will account for 35.9% casualties by 2020 in India. It has been creating an alarming health risk for Indians; according to a study by Saffola 2013 study conducted by Saffola suggests 70 % of the urban people are at the risk of heart disease. Similarly, according to Global Health Observatory data report, for every 10000 the mortality rate for female and male in India in 2012 was 264.6 and 348.9 respectively. Saffola Life Study 2014 reports 77% of women at the age of 35 at CVD risk have high BMI. And 89% of the women above the age 35 at CVD risk have low HDL.

A careful analysis and understanding of various CVDs provides us insights into all the aspects of the fatal disease: types, reasons and remedies or treatment. Simplifying the technical jargon of the disease, making the people aware of the disease, and educating them about the disease can help a lot to control the pervasiveness of the disease. Various campaigns, events, awareness programs help to realize the seriousness of the diseases and take proper actions. The World Heart Day campaign is successfully observed across the globe to spread awareness of the fatal diseases.

Bradycardia:

Bradycardia is slow heart rate which defined below 60 beats per minute (BPM). This is also known as bradyarrhythmia. A normal heart should beat about 100,000 times at a rate of 60 BPM. Nevertheless, a slow heart of 40-50 BPM is normal while sleeping.

The slow heart beats vary from person to person depending on the age, physical activity, and fitness. The heart beat rate which is not below 60 BPM but slow due any medical condition is considered as Relative Bradycardia.

Causes of Bradycardia:

It is difficult to find out the symptoms of bradycardia unless the heart rate drops to 50 BPM. Among the other symptoms, weakness, dizziness, fatigue and fainting are most prominent. In Bradycardia, one can feel difficulties in walking, climbing stairs, exercising, and breathing, and light-headedness.

 

According to experts, the heart contains two upper chambers (left and right atria) and two lower chambers (left and right ventricles). In a normal condition, sinus node, an area in the right atrium originates electrical impulse which travels first to the atria, so that they can contract and pump blood into the ventricles. The electrical impulse then travels through its circuit to the ventricles signalling them to contract and pump blood out to the lungs and the body. In Bradycardia, electrical impulse may travel to slow through heart which results in pumping less blood out to the body causing dizziness, fatigue, shortness of breath, chest pain. Even it causes cardiac arrest.

Tachycardia

When Bradycardia leads to slow heart beat, Tachycardia is a condition when the heart rate is over 100 BPM. In Tachycardia, the heart rate increases dramatically in the upper chambers or lower chambers of the heart or in both. This leads to disruption in the electrical impulse that helps pumping activity.

Many factors can contribute to problems with the heart’s electrical impulse. These factors include damage to heart tissues from heart disease, abnormal electrical pathways in the heart present at birth (Congenital), disease or congenital abnormality of the heart, and anaemia. This is also caused by exercise, sudden stress, smoking, consuming excess alcohol, high blood pressure, fever, drinking too much caffeinated beverages.

Cause that leads to Tachycardia

Tachycardia occurs when an abnormality in the heart produces rapid electrical signal. In some cases, the condition may cause no symptoms or complications. But the abnormal speed can disrupt normal heart function, increase the risk of stroke or cause sudden cardiac arrest or death.

Cardiac Arrhythmia

Arrhythmia, also known as irregular heartbeat, is a state where there is a disturbance of the normal electrical impulse of the heart. This leads to irregular heart beat of too fast or too slow compare to normal heart rate. When the heart beat is irregular, it doesn’t pump blood effectively that affects blood circulation to the lungs, brain, and all other organs. As result, they can't work properly and may shut down or get damaged.

Study shows that there are various types of arrhythmia for which it is difficult to identify the symptoms. But the common symptoms may include feeling a pause between heart beats and in worst cases; there may be chest pain, light-headedness, and shortness of breath. Some of the serious arrhythmia can cause stroke or heart failure or even cause cardiac arrest.

Mainly there are four types of arrhythmia such as ventricular arrhythmias, extra beats, brad arrhythmias and supraventricular tachycardia.

Causes of arrhythmia

Normally, sinus node consists of heart’s most rapidly firing cells that make the area a natural pacemaker. In unusual conditions, almost all heart tissue can start a type of impulse that can generate heart beats. Cells in the heart's conduction system start electrical activity. This can create interruption of the heart's pumping activity.

Heart Block 387160

If a person experiences a heart block, the problems occurs on how the electrical signals are transmitted through the heart. When the problem occurs at the AV node (Atrioventricular node), it prevents the signals being conducted from the atria (the heart’s upper chambers) to the ventricles (the lower chambers). This is called AV block.

There are three different levels of AV block.

  1. First Degree: When the electrical signals pass through the AV node, it slows down which rarely shows any symptoms.
  2. Second Degree: In a normal heart, all electrical signals have to reach the ventricles. But here some signals are delayed to the point that one is blocked altogether or may block every other signal. This can cause dizziness and fainting. Apart from this the patient won’t necessarily have any other symptoms.
  3. Third Degree: This is complete block and is considered to be fatal. No electrical signals reach the ventricles from the atria. At this juncture, the ventricles eventually produce their own electrical signals called the Escape Rhythm. This will lead to slow heart beat (Bradycardia) and it leads to blackouts.

How to Diagnose Block

The patient who suffers from symptoms of heart failure will have to take Electrocardiogram (ECG). The ECG measures the electrical activity of the heart to analyse how it is working. At times, the doctor will instruct the patient to wear a portable heart monitor over a day or two to measure the heart beat over a period of time. In between there will be blood tests.

The cardiologist after examining these tests will instruct the patient to follow other tests like Chest X-ray, Tilt table test, Echocardiogram, Coronary angiography etc.

Diabetes & Heart Attack

Heart, Heart Diseases, Pink Medico

Insulin, a hormone produced by pancreases, helps carrying the sugar or glucose from the bloodstream into cells that provides energy. But in diabetes, due to lack insulin, cells in the muscles, liver, and fat do not use insulin properly. As a result, the glucose amount increases in the blood while the cells are starved of energy. Consequently, high blood glucose levels damage nerves and blood vessels that lead to complications such as heart disease and stroke.

Having diabetes will put into a high risk of heart disease and stroke. Diabetics should lower the risk of heart attack and stroke by controlling their blood sugar level, blood pressure and blood cholesterol to the recommended target numbers suggested by the diabetes experts. This will prevent narrowing or blockage of the blood vessels in legs, where the condition is called peripheral arterial disease.

Food habits become a major factor at this point. The patient has to choose the food wisely which means it should not contain high sugar, high fat. The person should be physically active which can keep both the diabetes and cholesterol level at good control. The last but the major part is to take medications at the proper time.

Cholesterol and Heart Attack

Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance which is found in all body cells. Two kinds of lipoproteins carry cholesterol throughout the body: low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL). To maintain a good health level both lipoproteins are important. LDL which is called ‘bad’ cholesterol when in high levels leads to block in arteries. HDL or ‘good’ cholesterol is considered to be very important for a healthy body.

High cholesterol causes heart attack

When we have more fatty foods, that caused piling up of cholesterol level which can cause plague build up in your arteries. In case there is a clog in a coronary artery, it narrows down the arteries, shows down blood flow to the heart muscle. As a result, heart receives too little blood and oxygen. With absence of enough oxygen, your heart becomes weak and gets damaged. Additionally, if the plaque breaks open, a blood clot may form on top of the build-up, further blocking blood flow. Or, a blood clot can break off and flow to an artery in another part of the body. If a clot completely blocks an artery feeding your heart, you have a heart attack.

Like diabetes, cholesterol also should be controlled by strict food diet. Fatty foods and outside should be totally excluded and the supplements should be homely food and fruits as per the instruction of experts.